(T1) - Understanding the Wireless Physical Layer and its Impact on Other Layers

Sunday, August 15, 1999, 8:00 AM - 12:00 noon.

Prof. Michele Zorzi
Associate Professor
University of Ferrara
Department of Engineering
Via Saragat, I
44100, Ferrara, Italy
Tel: +39 0532 293840
Fax: +39 0532 768602

This tutorial will provide a simple and brief introduction to the wireless physical layer for non communication experts. The purpose is to convey some of the important underlying issues that impact the performance of the layers above the physical link.


  1. Overview of radio channel environment - path loss, shadow fading, multipath fading noise and interference.
  2. Receiver signal statistics - coherence bandwidth, level crossing rate, duration of fades and power spectrum.
  3. Combating Fading - diversity including sectored antennas and antenna arrays, coding/interleaving, equalization and spread spectrum.
  4. Modeling the radio channel
  5. Interference limited vs resource limited environments.
  6. Design considerations for wireless channels

Intended Audience:
Non-Electrical Engineers or Non-Communication Systems Experts

For most researchers and scientists that do not have an EE background, the wireless channel is very little understood. However it does have a major impact on the performance of the link as seen by the applications/services that use it. It is therefore very important that people understand this environment so that they can abstract for it the components that are critical to the operation of the layers above it and the services that need to be transported over it.

Speaker's Biography:
Michele Zorzi, Ph.D., has been a Research Scientist and Lecturer at the Center for Wireless Communications at the University of California from 1995 to 1998, and recently joined the University of Ferrara, Italy, as an Associate Professor. Dr. Zorzi received the Laurea Degree and the PhD in Electrical Engineering from the University of Padova, Italy, in 1990 and 1994 respectively. From 1993-1996, he was a faculty member in the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the Politecnico di Milano, where he has taught graduate-level courses on Communications Theory, Data Networks, and Wireless Networks. He has also taught various short courses in Wireless Communications, and has been invited to deliver research talks at many Universities and industrial organizations. Since 1991, his research interests have been focused mostly on Wireless Communications, spanning physical layer issues, radio channel modeling, data-link protocols, multiple access techniques, and transport layer schemes. He has published more than 90 papers in refereed international journals and conferences, and has contributed several invited papers, including a chapter on "Mobile and Wireless Telecommunication Networks" for the "Telecommunications Handbook", to be published by IEEE/CRC Press in 1998. He is also co-editor of the book "Advances in Wireless Communications", Kluwer, 1998. Dr Zorzi serves on the Editorial Board of the IEEE personal Communications magazine, the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, and the ACM/URSI/Baltzer Journal of Wireless Networks. He is the guest editor of the special issue on "Network Multimedia Radios" of the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, and also the guest editor of the special issue on "Energy Management in Personal Communications and Mobile Computing" of the IEEE Personal Communications Magazine (June 1998). He has served on the Technical Program Committee of international conferences and as a technical referee for many international journals. He is a Senior member of the IEEE and a member of AEI (the Italian Institute of Electrical Engineers).

(T2) - Understanding Code Mobility

Sunday, August 15, 1999, 8:00 PM - 12:00 PM

Dr. Gian Pietro Picco
Dept. of Computer Science
Washington University in St. Louis
Campus Box 1045
One Brookings Drive
St. Louis, MO 63130-4899
Tel. +1-314-935-7536
Fax. +1-314-935-7302
E-mail: picco@cs.wustl.edu

Code mobility can be defined as the capability of a distributed application to relocate its components at run-time. This possibility has been made popular by Java and by a myriad of other languages and systems. However, such systems differ in the way they provide support to code mobility, as they rely on different conceptual and terminological backgrounds, design choices, and abstractions. In general, the research area is still immature, and there is a strong need for a systematic approach to understanding the key characteristics of code mobility as well as for a careful analysis of the benefits provided.

The tutorial will illustrate a taxonomy of mobile code technologies, architectural paradigms, and applications. The taxonomy will provide a terminological basis, as well as a precise characterization of the founding concepts of the research area. Finally, the tutorial will also present an quantitative assessment of mobile code technologies and paradigms in the context of network management.


  1. Introduction - Why code mobility?
  2. Mobile code technology
  3. Mobile code design paradigms
  4. Mobile code applications
  5. A case study: network management
  6. Future directions for the research area
  7. Bibliographic remarks
  8. Open discussion

Intended Audience:
Practitioners can benefit from the extensive coverage of mobile code technology and get insights from our analysis of the applicative domains that could benefit of code mobility. Researchers working on the subject can discuss their views against our particular taxonomic coverage of the area, and get insights on our particular approach to the development of mobile code applications. Researchers working outside this research area can, together with teachers and students, learn the basics of this rapidly expanding research field.

Speaker's Biography
Gian Pietro Picco (http://swarm.cs.wustl.edu/~picco/) is a Visiting Assistant Professor at Washington University, St.Louis, MO, USA. His current research interests are in distributed systems that exhibit logical mobility of code or physical mobility of hosts, and in the relationships between these two forms of mobility. On this subject, he has published research work that spans from the investigation of the theoretical aspects of mobile systems to the development of middleware supporting mobile applications.

(T3) - Wireless Ad Hoc Networking Protocols

Sunday, August 15, 1999, 1:00 - 5:00 PM

David A. Maltz and Josh Broch
Carnegie Mellon University
Computer Science Department
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
Phone: +1 412 268-3621
Fax: +1 412 268-5576
dmaltz@cs.cmu.edu, broch@cs.cmu.edu

An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without the need for any pre-existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless network interfaces, multiple network "hops" may be needed for one node to exchange data with another across the network. In recent years, a variety of new routing protocols targeted specifically at this environment have been developed.

In this tutorial we will describe the idea of ad hoc networking and scenarios where this technology will make an impact. In the morning session we will explain how the environment of an ad hoc network is very different from the wired environment, and the effect this has on the design and operation of routing protocols for ad hoc networks. We follow this with a description of a number of the different approaches to ad hoc networking, including the prominent protocols under consideration for standardization by the IETF.

We will review the experiences of several groups that have actually built and deployed multi-hop ad hoc networks. We will discuss the subtle issues, obstacles, and pitfalls encountered when building and deploying ad hoc networks by drawing on examples from the DARPA packet radio effort, the WINGS project, Task Force XXI, and our own ad hoc network testbed.


  1. Introduction to Ad Hoc Networking
  2. Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks
  3. Experiences Designing, Implementing, and Analyzing Ad Hoc Networks
  4. Open Problems and Challenges for Ad Hoc Networks

Intended Audience
Researchers and industry practitioners.

Speakers' Biographies:
Dave Maltz and Josh Broch are the senior Ph.D. students of the Monarch Project at Carnegie Mellon University under David Johnson. Together with Professor Johnson, the speakers designed the Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks, which has been proposed to the IETF Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Working Group for standardization. Josh and Dave have designed and implemented a framework for studying wireless ad hoc networks using the ns simulator, and authored the first comparative analysis of several of the ad hoc routing protocols currently under consideration by the IETF. They have also designed and implemented a physical test bed for ad hoc networks, and are currently leading an effort to analyze and improve its performance.

David A. Maltz has been designing and evaluating protocols for ad hoc networks for the past five years. His other recent research work includes the innovation of a technique called TCP Splice to improve network proxies. As an active participant in the IETF, he is working to create and standardize protocols for both Mobile IP and ad hoc networks. He received the S.B. and S.M. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1994. He has interned at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Lotus Development Corporation, and the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center. He has held fellowships from IBM and the Intel Corporation.

Josh Broch authored the first implementation of Mobile IP for IPv6 and is a co-author of a leading IETF proposal for multi-hop routing in ad hoc wireless networks. His recent work focuses on the development and analysis of routing protocols for ad hoc networks. Josh received a B.S. in Mathematics and Computer Science from Barry University in 1995 and a M.S. in Information Networking from Carnegie Mellon University in 1996. He worked for five years as a Systems Engineer at Connections for Business (Hollywood, FL) and has interned at Oak Ridge National Lab and Microsoft.

(T4) - Mobile IP and Mobile Networking in the Internet

Sunday, August 15, 1999, 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Morning Session (8:00 AM - 12:00) - Given by Charles Perkins
Afternoon Session (1:00 PM - 5:00 PM) - Given by Prof. David Johnson

Charles E. Perkins
Senior Staff Engineer
SUN Microsystems
Mountain View, CA
Phone: 650-786-6464

Prof. David B. Johnson
Associate Professor
Computer Science Department
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3891 USA
Phone: +1 412 268-7399
Fax: +1 412 268-5576

The global Internet is growing at a tremendous rate. There are now about 40 million hosts connected to the Internet, and this number is doubling approximately every year. At the same time, portable computing devices such as laptop and palmtop computers have become widely available at very affordable prices, and many new wireless networking products and services are becoming available based on technologies such as spread spectrum radio, infrared, cellular, and satellite. With these dramatic increases in portability and ease of network access, it becomes natural for users to expect to be able to access the Internet at any time and from anywhere, and to transparently remain connected and continue to use the network as they move about. However, without specific support for mobility in IP, packets destined to a mobile node would not be able to reach it while the mobile node is away from its home network due to the nature of IP (and indeed, any inter-network) routing. Mobile IP is a technology that has been developed to solve this problem. The area of Mobile IP has seen rapidly increasing interest among researchers and has already become the basis of some commercial mobile network systems, with more expected to follow in coming years. Indeed, with the development of IPv6 to replace the current version of IP in use in the Internet today, Mobile IP is expected to become a standard feature of all IP implementations.


Topics Covered by Mr. Perkins:

  1. Introduction - Why Mobile Networking?
  2. MobileIP - Terminology, Overview, Agent Discovery, Registration, Tunneling, Home Networks
  3. Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting

Topics Covered by Prof. Johnson:

  1. Mobile IP Security Problems and Solutions
  2. Route Optimization for Mobile IP
  3. Mobile IP for IPv6
  4. Future Directions and Open Areas

Intended Audience:
The tutorial is intended for networking and computer science research personnel, wireless product engineers, cellular telephony engineers, and anyone interested in mobile networking. It is also intended for end users working with or considering deploying Mobile IP systems or related protocols. Participants should come away with an understanding of the underlying concepts of Mobile IP, the design and use of the protocol, and the current state and future directions for the area.

Speakers' Biographies
David B. Johnson is an Associate Professor in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University. He also holds a courtesy faculty appointment in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Carnegie Mellon, and is a member of CMU's Information Networking Institute. His research interests include network protocols, distributed systems, and operating systems. Prior to joining the faculty at CMU in 1992, he was on the faculty at Rice University for three years as a Research Scientist and Lecturer in the Computer Science Department. He received a B.A. in computer science and mathematical sciences in 1982, an M.S. in computer science in 1985, and a Ph.D. in computer science in 1990, all from Rice University.

Professor Johnson is currently leading the Monarch Project at Carnegie Mellon University, developing adaptive networking protocols and architectures to allow truly seamless wireless and mobile host networking. Related to this research, he has been active in the IETF for many years, and is one of the principal designers of the IETF Mobile IP protocol for IPv4. More recently, he has been the primary designer of the IETF Mobile IP protocol for IPv6, and is the designer of one of the leading proposed protocols in the IETF Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Working Group. Professor Johnson was Program Chair for MobiCom'97 and Technical Vice Chair for Mobile Systems for ICDCS'99, and has served as a member of the Technical Program Committee for over 15 international conferences and workshops. He is an Executive Committee member and the Treasurer for ACM SIGMOBILE, is an Area Editor for the ACM/Baltzer journal Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET) and the ACM SIGMOBILE magazine Mobile Computing and Communications Review (MC2R), and is a Guest Editor for an upcoming issue of IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (J-SAC) on mobile ad hoc networking. He is a member of the ACM, IEEE Computer Society, IEEE Communications Society, USENIX, Sigma Xi, and the Internet Society.

Charles E. Perkins is a Senior Staff Engineer at Sun Microsystems, developing Service Location Protocol and investigating dynamic configuration protocols for mobile networking. He has served as document editor for the Mobile IP Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and is author or co-author of standards-track documents in the mobile-ip, svrloc, dhc (Dynamic Host Configuration) and IPng working groups, as well as serving on the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). Charles has authored a book on Mobile IP, and has published a number of papers in the areas of mobile networking, ad hoc networking, and automatic configuration for mobile computers. Charles is a feature editor for Mobile Computing and Communications Review, the official publication of ACM SIGMOBILE, and area editor for the journals Wireless Networks, Mobile Networking and Applications, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, and IEEE Internet Computing magazine.

(T5) - Designing Energy Efficient Mobile Systems

Monday, August 16, 1999, 8:00 AM - 12:00 noon

Prof. Mani B. Srivastava
UCLA - Electrical Engineering Department
7702-B Boelter Hall, Box 951594
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1594
Telephone 310-267-2098
E-mail: mbs@janet.ucla.edu

Energy efficiency directly affects battery life and portability, and is perhaps the single most important design metric in mobile and wireless network computing systems. The increasing mismatch between the user expectations from wireless devices on one hand, and the glacial pace of improvement in battery technology on the other hand makes energy efficient wireless system design a particularly challenging problem.

The tutorial will provide the attendees with a comprehensive view of battery technology, sources of power consumption in computing and communication, energy efficiency metrics, and low power design techniques across all layers of mobile and wireless networked systems. Going beyond the generic hardware and software low power design techniques such as voltage reduction and shutdown management, the tutorial will also describe techniques such as low power network protocols that are specific to wireless systems design. With its balanced treatment of both design techniques and research issues, the tutorial should be of interest to practicing engineers as well as researchers.


  1. Energy Efficiency in Mobile Computing and Networking
  2. Low power hardware
  3. Low power software
  4. Power consumption in radios
  5. Low power link, routing, and transport protocols
  6. Middleware, OS, and application level techniques for low power
  7. Putting it all together: case studies
  8. Conclusions: trends and challenges

Intended Audience:
The tutorial is targeted at both practicing engineers and researchers who want to learn about energy efficiency and design for low power across the various layers (physical, protocol, application) of mobile and wireless computing and networking systems. To the practicing engineers the tutorial will provide a comprehensive treatment of recent developments in design for low power at various layers in the system. To the researchers the tutorial will provide an opportunity to learn about low power related research issues in mobile computing, and particularly problems that arise from the strong interplay of physical, protocol, middleware, and application level considerations that is typical of wireless systems. The tutorial is self contained with an extended bibliography to guide the interested participants to later delve into more details, and would be accessible to participants with typical EE and CS backgrounds.

Speaker's Biography
Mani Srivastava is an Associate Professor in EE at UCLA. He received MS and Ph.D. degrees from Berkeley, and worked for several years in Networked Computing Research at Bell Labs. At UCLA he leads a DARPA research project on adaptive and energy efficient wireless protocols and node architectures. He is also investigating reconfigurable architectures for wireless nodes and base stations, networks of wireless embedded systems, QoS issues in wireless, and low power design. He has several patents, and has extensively published in wireless networking, low power systems, and system level tools. His recent awards include the Okawa Foundation Grant, and the NSF CAREER Award.

(T6) - Multicast Communications Over Wireless Networks

Monday, August 16, 1999, 1:00 PM - 5:00 PM

Prof. Upkar Varshney
Assistant Professor
Computer Information Systems
Georgia State University
35 Broad Street
Atlanta, Georgia 30302
Phone: (404) 463-9139
Fax: (404) 651-3842

In the last ten or more years, multipoint or multicasting communications has emerged as one of the most demanding and difficult networking challenges. Many solutions have been proposed for supporting multicast communications in the existing IP and ATM based networks. With emerging wireless and mobile networks, it is of great importance that support for multicast communications be incorporated in these networks. The multicast support becomes even more difficult in wireless and mobile networks due to mobility of users, and due to the use of wireless links of varying performance. Attempts are being made to support multicasting in wireless and mobile networks. The purpose of this tutorial is to discuss issues of multicasting support and how to support multicasting in emerging wireless and mobile networks. We will discuss both existing solutions and current research activities. We will cover a survey of protocols, services, and technologies for supporting multicasting in wireless and mobile networks.


  1. Why Multicasting?
  2. Multicast Routing Algorithms
  3. Emerging Wireless and Mobile Networks/Protocols
  4. Multicast in Wireless & Mobile Networks
  5. Multicasting in Mobile IP, Wireless ATM, IP over ATM
  6. Support for Multicasting in other Wireless & Mobile Networks
  7. Future Directions

Intended Audience:
The tutorial will be very useful to people working or planning to enter in the areas of wireless and mobile networking or multicasting. University professors, graduate students, and industry professionals or anyone interested in these areas may want to attend the tutorial.

Speaker's Biography:
Upkar Varshney is on the faculty of Computer Information Systems at Georgia State University, Atlanta. He received a Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering with Honors from University of Roorkee, India, an MS in Computer Science and a Ph.D. in Telecommunications & Networking, from the University of Missouri-Kansas City. His research and teaching interests include mobile and wireless networking, wireless and mobile ATM, and the next generation Internet. Professor Varshney has authored or co-authored over 30 papers. He has presented some extremely well received tutorials and workshops at major international conferences. He has also been on the program committees of several major international conferences. He is a member of IEEE, ACM and several other professional organizations.

(T7) - TCP for Wireless and Mobile Hosts

Monday, August 16, 1999, 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM

Nitin H. Vaidya
Associate Professor
Department of Computer Science
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843-3112
Phone: 409-845-0512
Fax: 409-847-8578
E-mail: vaidya@cs.tamu.edu
URL: http://www.cs.tamu.edu/faculty/vaidya/

This tutorial deals with the impact of wireless transmission errors and host mobility on performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP). The tutorial begins with a brief overview of wireless technologies available today, and TCP and Mobile IP protocols. The tutorial is divided into three parts. First part deals with impact of wireless transmissions errors on TCP performance, and techniques for improving performance in presence of such errors. This is followed by a brief overview of the techniques targeted for the satellite environment. Second part of the tutorial deals with impact of mobility, and techniques to improve TCP performance with mobility. The third part deals with multi-hop wireless networks. The tutorial will provide the attendees with an overview of the state of the art, and an understanding of the basic approaches that may be used to improve TCP performance in wireless and mobile environments.


  1. Introduction
  2. Background material
  3. Impact of wireless errors on TCP performance
  4. Classification of approaches to improve TCP performance
  5. Detailed discussion of a few representative approaches, followed by a quick summary of other approaches
  6. Impact of mobility on TCP performance
  7. Discussion of approaches to improve TCP performance in presence of mobility
  8. Issues in multi-hop wireless networks
  9. Conclusions and Discussion

Intended Audience:
This tutorial is designed to provide an overview of issues related to TCP for wireless/mobile environments. The tutorial should benefit attendees from industry as well as academia, who work in areas related to telecommunication, wireless data, networking, and multimedia.

Speaker's Biography:
Nitin Vaidya received the Ph.D. degree from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in 1992. He also received the M.E. degree from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, in 1988 and the B.E (Hons) degree from the Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, in 1986.

He is currently an Associate Professor of Computer Science at the Texas A&M University. His research interests include wireless networking, mobile computing, and fault-tolerant computing.

Nitin Vaidya is a recipient of a 1995 CAREER award from the National Science Foundation. He has served on program and organizing committees of several conferences and workshops. Vaidya is a member of the ACM and the IEEE Computer Society. He can be reached at vaidya@cs.tamu.edu.

(T8) - Wide Area Wireless Data Communications

Monday, August 16, 1999, 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM

Satyajit P. Doctor and Jennifer Yin
Award Solutions
800 East Campbell, Suite 344
Richardson, TX 75081
Phone: 972-664-0727
Fax: 972-664-0729

Wireless data communications has become the hot topic of the telecom and datacom industry. This tutorial provides professionals in the communications industry with a broad overview of wireless data technologies, services, and applications. It begins with a discussion of driving market and technology forces behind wireless data, followed by a brief comparison of wireless and wired data concepts and networks. We take a look at how radio technologies including CDMA, GSM, and TDMA support wireless circuit data services, as well as alternative wireless solutions for packet data, such as GPRS and CDPD networks. We further analyze 3G networks and their mechanisms for supporting various wireless data services. The tutorial also introduces the topics of Cellular IP and describes Mobile IP and how it pertains to wireless networks. Other protocols including WAP and Bluetooth are also discussed.


  1. Wireless vs. wireline data
  2. Challenges facing wireless data
  3. Driving forces of wireless data
  4. 3G wireless data in IMT-2000 compliant systems
  5. Introduction to Cellular IP
  6. Mobile IP in wide area wireless networks
  7. GPRS and CDPD packet data networks
  8. Circuit data services in wireless networks
  9. Data support by wireless access technologies, including CDMA, TDMA, and GSM
  10. Introduction to other wireless data protocols, including WAP and Bluetooth

Intended Audience:
The tutorial is intended for professionals in computer and communications industries who want to develop knowledge in wireless data communications. Basic knowledge of wireless access technologies and networks, and data communications is assumed. The tutorial covers basic concepts, various technologies, services, emerging applications and the future of wireless data. This tutorial covers both the technical and application aspects of mobile wireless data; hence, it is suitable for a relatively wide audience. The tutorial creates intense audience participation by including exercises and audience conducted reviews for each module. These activities increase the participants' interest and involvement throughout the tutorial.

Speakers' Biographies:
Satyajit ("Doc") Doctor is the co-founder and president of AWARD Solutions, Inc. Doc has extensive industry experience in the areas of wireless and data communications. He has been involved in end-to-end solutions, from the business side to the planning side to the actual design, development, and deployment of projects. Over the years, Doc has been instrumental in the definition and design of several network architectures and products, spanning areas such as 2nd and 3rd generation CDMA, TDMA, IS-41/WIN, GPRS, CDPD, AMPS, Network Management strategies, and packet based (IP/Mobile IP/..) protocols. As a consultant, he has been involved in strategic technology and business planning with leading wireless equipment manufacturers. In his previous role as the Senior Manager of Wireless Systems Engineering at Nortel, he was responsible for network capacity, performance engineering and creating intellectual property. On leaving Nortel Networks, Doc co-founded AWARD Solutions. AWARD is a provider of technical consulting and training services in the areas of Wireless, Internet, ATM and other emerging technologies to equipment manufacturers and service providers.

Jennifer Yin is a consultant with AWARD Solutions, Inc., a provider of technical consulting and specialized training for wireless, web-based and wireline technologies and data communications. She has a broad background in wireless telecommunications systems, including areas such as mobile wireless data, call processing, handoffs, and networking.

With a software engineering background, Jennifer has been a key member of numerous development teams working on projects involving CDMA, TDMA and AMPS wireless networks. She has hands-on experience in many aspects of the architecture, including base stations, base station controllers, and switching systems. She has also been involved in the implementation and testing of call processing and handoff functions, as well as design of OA&M systems in CDMA networks.